Bases of American Civilization
What were the bases of Civilization in America (Revised 10/9/01)
Migration of the European and Asian Homo sapiens across the tundra land bridge, presently the Bering Strait between Alaska and Siberia, is said to be due from ?increasing population pressures?(p. 198), and the pursuit of mammoths, mastodons and other large game. Civilization in America was separate from the classical world of Asia, North Africa and southern Europe, and progressed on it?s own, without the help of any previous civilization.
The ancient hunters?the first evident humans around 9500 B.C.E.?basis of social organization revolved around kinship, a basis commonly present in many future groups. The seclusion and isolation of these groups have some believing the people of America developed agriculture, domestication of some animals, weaving, ceramics, a number system, religious ideas, complex societies and urbanization.
Environmental change, disappearance of large game and stabilization of the sea coast became a few underlying factors for the cultures; transition to agriculture and a sedentary way of life created dependency on agriculture, beginning a process resulting in 3 systems: complex social, political and economical. Sedentary populations who could produce surpluses attained the status of a complex society, forming a base for hierarchical societies.
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